Friday, May 22, 2020
Lears Relinquishment of Power in Shakespeares King Lear King Lear is an actor who can only play the king. Thus, after he has abdicated his throne, passing the authority to his posterity, he still demands respect and power, which he is unable to claim from any of his former subjects, even his daughters. And as a king with no kingdom, he is an actor with no role to play, the most loathsome of all conditions. Lear himself realizes this, and in scene 4, he cries: Why, this is not Lear (4.204). And later in the same speech, he says: Who is it that can tell me who I am? (4.209). Lear is stuck in his role as king, unable to act in any other manner and powerless to provide for himself, causing the ultimate downfall of he and hisÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(1.124-8) Lear cannot deny his ultimate role as the king. He desires to maintain his name and his rights as king, but to give control of the kingdom to his daughters and their husbands. However, this cannot work: We know immediately that he is doomed to painful disillusionment by his assumption that his identity as king, father, and man, being fixed in the macrocosmic scheme of things, must remain unshaken without its worldly supports (Egan 32). So, King Lears exercising of this nonexistent power establishes his tragic flaw and the problem of the play: the power of the kingdom must reside in Lear only. The consequences of this problem appear very early in King Lear. Near the end of the initial scene, Cordelia has already deciphered the evil designs of her sisters. As she is leaving them to live with her new husband, Cordelia says: Use well our father. / To your professed bosoms I commit him (1.258-9). She realizes that her sisters are using their pseudo love for their father to garner the power of the throne and to misuse the authority that Lear has given them. Cordelia also points out in this statement that she realizes that her father is stuck in his role as king, unable to provide for himself, thus needing the support of the evil sisters to care for him. And they have little use for him: Nothing will come of nothing, and since he hasShow MoreRelated Essay on Facing the Consequences in King Lear999 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesKing Lear:Ã Facing the Consequences Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Shakespeares tragedy King Lear is a detailed description of the consequences of one mans decisions.Ã This fictitious man is Lear, King of England, whose decisions greatly alter his life and the lives of those around him.Ã As Lear bears the status of King, he is, as one expects, a man of great power.Ã But, sinfully, he surrenders all of this power to two of his daughters, as a reward for their demonstration of love towards him.Ã This untimely
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Alternatives to Human-embryo Stem-cell Research This essay counters the media and many scientists claims that there are no viable alternatives to human-embryo stem-cell research (ESCR). The media restate the claim (made repeatedly in NIH documents) that adult stem cells do not have the same potential as embryonic stem cells, which in theory can form any tissue. But studies done with adult stem cells (studies which mirror the ones done with embryonic stem cells) show that adult stem cells do have the capacity to form essentially any tissue. The most misleading term which continues to be used is pluripotent. Literally, this means able to form most (but not all) tissues. This term continues to be usedÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The best sources are from our own organs termed adult stem cells or tissue stem cells. Another excellent source is cord blood; the small amount of blood left in an umbilical cord after it is detached from a newborn is rich in stem cells. In the last two years, weve gone from thinking that we had very few stem cells in our bodies, to recognizing that many (perhaps most) organs maintain a reservoir of these cells. Weve known for some time that bone-marrow stem cells can make more blood, but now we know that these adult stem cells can also make bone, muscle, cartilage, heart tissue, liver, and even brain. Interestingly enough, we now know that our brain contains stem cells which can be stimulated to make more neurons, or to take up different job descriptions as muscle or blood. Bone marrow and cord blood are already successfully being used clinically, while clinical use of embryonic stem cells is years away. Current clinical applications of adult stem cells include treatments for cancer, arthritis, lupus, and making new corneas, to name a few. One distinct advantage of using our own adult stem cells is that there will be no transplant rejection, since it is our own tissue. Use of human embryonic stem cells will require lifelong use of drugs to prevent rejection of the tissue. Or, the patient will have to beShow MoreRelatedThe Debate Over Stem Cell Research1685 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhile the use of stem cells can offer a lot to the scientific community, the derivation of stem cells from embryos is ethically unacceptable; and the use of stem cells in humans should be completely prohibited. Since the first research on embryo stem cells in 1998 on mice the controversy has been relentless (Timeline), and even now, scientists have made great strides in waning off of embryonic stem cells and instead using induced pluripotent stem cells from adults, however these have their issuesRead MoreEmbryonic Stem Cell Research Essay710 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesResearch on stem embryonic stem cells We live in a world where genetic sciences have gone beyond laws, and past the imagination. We have come to a point where we donÃ¢â¬â¢t know anymore what is right, and what is wrong. We have to decide. In fact, studies are made on embryonic stem cells that for now have the purpose to better our overall health. These stem cells are extracted from extra IVF embryos; they are used and destroyed. While itÃ¢â¬â¢s true that this research could cure serious illnesses as ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreThe Ethics of Stem Cell Research Essay741 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Embryonic stem cell research can be easily defined. A stem is defined as something that is developed from. A cell is defined as a microscopic living organism. According to Dennis Hollinger, Embryonic stem cell research uses from the embryos inner cell mass that give rise to each of the human bodys many different tissue types(1). In our modern day society, stem cell research has become a controversial topic. Several people strongly oppose the idea of the research, but many are struggling forRead MoreStem Cells Research The Regeneration Of Medicine. Stem1526 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesStem Cells Research the Regeneration of Medicine Stem cells research is one of the most powerful areas of medicine that is both researched and passionately argued. The web page of National Institute of Health (NIH) describes that stem cells are unspecialized cells that are capable of renewing themselves through cell division and they can also be induced to become tissue or organ-specific cells with special functions. Stem cells have the potential to develop into many different cell types in the bodyRead MoreStem Cells : Research For Disease Modeling And Drug Development1609 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Stem Cells in Research without the Ethical Issues: Ways around Embryonic Stem Cells Deborah Baluyot Western Governors University Abstract: Using various academic journals and articles found online (Internet), this paper seeks to cover the use of human stem cells (hSCs) in research for disease modeling and drug development. Specifically, the ethical controversies that come with using embryonic stem cells (Lo Parham , 2009) and possible ways to get around them, will also beRead More Embryonic Stem Cell Research Essay1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshas allowed for a new understanding of stem cells and further developments in research. The use of stem cells in regenerative medicine may hold significant benefits for those suffering from degenerative diseases. To avail such advancements in stem cell research could see the alleviation or complete cure of afflictions that take the lives of millions worldwide each year. (McLaren, 2001) A stem cell 1 is able differentiate into any somatic cell found in the human body, including those identical to itselfRead More paper1456 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEmbryonic Stem Cell Research What if there was a way to cure previously in-curable diseases with the help of something in the very first stages of human life, but thousands upon thousands of lives had to be taken to perfect the use of this material? That is exactly what is happening with embryonic stem cells around the world. Pro-life activists, who originally organized to stop the abortions of unborn fetuses, were most angered with the process of actually destroying an embryo solely for research purposesRead MoreStem Cell Type Is Best?1264 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTopic: Stem research, which stem cell type is best? Umbilical cord stem cells or embryonic stem cells. General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform the audience of the advantages and disadvantage of using embryonic and umbilical cord stem cells in research. Central Ideal: While medical researchers believe that the use of embryonic stem cells is their best option in research, others believe it to be unethical and immoral, and that umbilical stem cells are a good alternative to embryonicRead MoreThe Debate Of Embryonic Stem Cell Research931 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Embryonic stem cell research is the study of stem cells derived from the undifferentiated inner mass cells of a human embryo. For many years now, the ethics of embryonic stem cell research has been argued. A recent advance in this line of research is the ability to clone the embryonic stem cells, which allows for researchers to create a completely compatible embryonic stem cell to the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s tissue type. Though this new science may be very beneficial, not everyone can agree on the ethics ofRead MoreThe Heated Debate Concerning Stem Cell Research Essay1043 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesStates, research has become a viable tool for sustaining and prolonging human life. As rese arch evolves, it brings along with it much controversy, especially where stem cell research is involved. Stem cell research can bring new insight to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s medical field. This may be the way of finding solutions concerning many health injuries and diseases which would diversely be thought of as implausible. Thoughts can be influenced by Deborah White, in Pros Cons of Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Ã¢â¬Å"Embryonic
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"Are you sure you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want us to cal your parents, miss?Ã¢â¬ The campus security officerÃ¢â¬â¢s voice was gruff but kind, and his eyes were worried. For a second, Meredith let herself picture having the kind of parents he must be imagining: ones who would swoop in to rescue their daughter, wrap her up and take her home until the horrible images of her friendÃ¢â¬â¢s death faded. Her parents would just tel her to get on with the job. We will write a custom essay sample on The Hunters: Moonsong Chapter Twenty-Six or any similar topic only for you Order Now Tel her that any other reaction was a failure. If she let herself be weak, more people would die. More so because Samantha had been a hunter, from a family of hunters, like Meredith. Meredith knew exactly what her father would have said if she had cal ed him. Ã¢â¬Å"Let this be a lesson to you. You are never safe.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢l be okay,Ã¢â¬ she told the security guard. Ã¢â¬Å"My roommates are upstairs.Ã¢â¬ He let her go, watching her climb the stairs with a distressed expression. Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t worry, miss,Ã¢â¬ he cal ed. Ã¢â¬Å"The police wil get this guy.Ã¢â¬ Meredith bit back her first reply, which was that he seemed to be putting a lot of faith in a police force that had yet to find any clues as to the whereabouts of the missing people or to solve ChristopherÃ¢â¬â¢s murder. He was only trying to comfort her. She nodded to him and gave a little wave. She hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been any more successful than the police, not even with SamanthaÃ¢â¬â¢s help. She hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t been trying hard enough, had been too distracted by the new place, the new people. Why now? Meredith wondered suddenly. It hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t occurred to her before, but this was the first death, attack, or disappearance that took place in a dorm room instead of out on the quad or paths of the campus. Whatever this was, it came after Samantha specifical y. Meredith remembered the dark figure she chased away after it attacked a girl, a girl who said she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember anything. Meredith recal ed the flash of pale hair as the figure turned away. Did Samantha die because they got too close to the kil er? Her parents were right. No one was ever safe. She needed to work harder, needed to get on with the job and fol ow up on every lead. Upstairs, BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s bed was empty. Elena looked up from where she was lying, curled up on her bed. Part of Meredith noted that ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s face was wet with tears and knew that usual y she would have dropped everything to comfort her friend, but now she had to focus on finding SamanthaÃ¢â¬â¢s kil er. Meredith crossed to her own closet, opened it, and pul ed out a heavy black satchel and the case for her hunterÃ¢â¬â¢s stave. Ã¢â¬Å"WhereÃ¢â¬â¢s Bonnie?Ã¢â¬ she asked, tossing the satchel onto her bed and unbuckling it. Ã¢â¬Å"She left before I got up,Ã¢â¬ Elena answered, her voice shaky. Ã¢â¬Å"I think she had a study group this morning. Meredith, whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on?Ã¢â¬ Meredith flipped the satchel open and began to pul out her knives and throwing stars. Ã¢â¬Å"WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on?Ã¢â¬ Elena asked again, more insistently, her eyes wide. Ã¢â¬Å"SamanthaÃ¢â¬â¢s dead,Ã¢â¬ Meredith said, testing the edge of a knife against her thumb. Ã¢â¬Å"She was murdered in her bed by whateverÃ¢â¬â¢s been stalking this campus, and we need to stop it.Ã¢â¬ The knife could be sharper Ã¢â¬â Meredith had been letting her weapons maintenance slide Ã¢â¬â and she dug in the bag for a whetstone. Ã¢â¬Å"What?Ã¢â¬ Elena said. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh, no, oh, Meredith, IÃ¢â¬â¢m so sorry.Ã¢â¬ Tears began to run down her face again, and Meredith looked over at her, holding out the bag with the stave in it. Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s a smal black box in my desk with little bottles of different poison extracts inside it,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"Wolfsbane, vervain, snake venoms. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what weÃ¢â¬â¢re dealing with exactly, so youÃ¢â¬â¢d better fil the hypodermics with a variety of things. Be careful,Ã¢â¬ she added. ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s mouth dropped open, and then, after a few seconds, she closed it firmly and nodded, wiping her cheeks with the backs of her hands. Meredith knew that her message Ã¢â¬â mourn later, act now Ã¢â¬â had been received and that Elena, as always, would work with her. Elena put the stave on her bed and found the box of poisons in MeredithÃ¢â¬â¢s desk. Meredith watched as Elena figured out how to fil the tiny hypodermics inset in the ironwood of the stave, her steady fingers pul ing them out and working them cautiously open. Once she was sure Elena knew what she was doing, Meredith went back to sharpening her knife. Ã¢â¬Å"They must have come after Samantha on purpose. She wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t a chance victim,Ã¢â¬ Meredith said, her eyes on the knife as she drew it rhythmical y against the whetstone. Ã¢â¬Å"I think we need to assume that whoever this is knows weÃ¢â¬â¢re hunting him, and that therefore weÃ¢â¬â¢re in danger.Ã¢â¬ She shuddered, remembering her friendÃ¢â¬â¢s body. Ã¢â¬Å"SamanthaÃ¢â¬â¢s death was brutal.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"A car tried to run me and Damon down last night,Ã¢â¬ Elena said. Ã¢â¬Å"We had been trying to investigate something weird in the library, but I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know if thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why. I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t get a look at the driver.Ã¢â¬ Meredith paused in her knife sharpening. Ã¢â¬Å"I told you that Samantha and I chased away someone attacking a girl on campus,Ã¢â¬ she said thoughtful y, Ã¢â¬Å"but I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t tel you one thing, because I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure. IÃ¢â¬â¢m stil not sure.Ã¢â¬ She told Elena about her impressions of the black-clad figure, including the momentary impression of paleness below the hoodie, of almost white hair. Elena frowned, her fingers faltering on the staff. Ã¢â¬Å"Zander?Ã¢â¬ she asked. They both looked at BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s unmade bed. Ã¢â¬Å"She real y likes him,Ã¢â¬ Meredith said slowly. Ã¢â¬Å"WouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t she know if there was something wrong with him? You knowÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ She made a vague gesture around her head, trying to indicate BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s history of visions. Ã¢â¬Å"We canÃ¢â¬â¢t count on that,Ã¢â¬ Elena said, frowning. Ã¢â¬Å"And she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember the things she sees. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think heÃ¢â¬â¢s right for Bonnie,Ã¢â¬ she continued. Ã¢â¬Å"HeÃ¢â¬â¢s so Ã¢â¬â I mean, heÃ¢â¬â¢s good-looking, and friendly, but he seems off somehow, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t he? And his friends are jerks. I know itÃ¢â¬â¢s a long way from having terrible friends to being dangerous enough to do something like this, but I donÃ¢â¬â¢t trust him.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Can you ask Stefan to watch him?Ã¢â¬ Meredith asked. Ã¢â¬Å"I know youÃ¢â¬â¢re taking a break from dating, but this is important, and a vampire would be the best one to keep an eye on him.Ã¢â¬ Stefan looked so sad the other night, she thought distantly. Why shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t Elena cal him? Life was short. She felt the blade of the knife against her thumb again. Better. Putting the sharpened knife down, she reached for another. Elena wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t answering, and Meredith looked up to see her staring hard at the stave, her mouth trembling. Ã¢â¬Å"I Ã¢â¬â Stefan isnÃ¢â¬â¢t talking to me,Ã¢â¬ she said in a little burst. Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think Ã¢â¬â I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know if heÃ¢â¬â¢d help us.Ã¢â¬ She closed her mouth firmly, clearly not wanting to talk about it. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh,Ã¢â¬ Meredith said. It was hard to imagine Stefan not doing what Elena wanted, but it was also clear that Elena didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to ask him. Ã¢â¬Å"Should I cal Damon?Ã¢â¬ she suggested reluctantly. The older vampire was a pain, and she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t real y trust him, but he was certainly good at being sneaky. Elena sucked in a breath and then nodded briskly, her mouth set. Ã¢â¬Å"No, IÃ¢â¬â¢l cal him,Ã¢â¬ she said. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢l ask Damon to investigate Zander.Ã¢â¬ Meredith sighed and leaned back against the wal , letting the knife drop onto her bed. Suddenly, she was terribly tired. Waiting for Samantha in the gym that morning seemed like a mil ion years ago, but it stil wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t even lunchtime. She and Elena both looked at BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s bed again. Ã¢â¬Å"We have to talk to her about Zander, donÃ¢â¬â¢t we?Ã¢â¬ Elena asked quietly. Ã¢â¬Å"We have to ask her whether he was with her al last night. And we have to warn her.Ã¢â¬ Meredith nodded and closed her eyes, letting her head rest against the coolness of the wal , then opened them again. Tired as she was, she knew the images of SamanthaÃ¢â¬â¢s death would come back to her if she let herself pause for even a moment. She didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have time to rest, not while the kil er was out there. Ã¢â¬Å"SheÃ¢â¬â¢s not going to be happy about it.Ã¢â¬ How to cite The Hunters: Moonsong Chapter Twenty-Six, Essay examples
Monday, April 27, 2020
The Effect of Temperature and Concentration on the Rate of the Briggs-Rauscher Reaction free essay sample
Like any experiment, there were a number of potential errors during the procedure of the experiment. Errors could have arisen as a result of the uncertainties associated with the instruments I used to take measurements, and also as a result of errors associated with the actual method. Of course, due to the limitations of the procedure, they could not be eliminated completely, so I will explain what I did to reduce them to an acceptable level and how I could have improved my method to reduce them even further. Equipment justification The following table shows the reasons for my choice of equipment in carrying out my method. Equipment| Justification| 100 cm3 burette| I needed to accurately measure out large quantities of hydrogen peroxide (90 cm3 and 150 cm3). The 100 cm3 burette is a precise instrument and would allow me to measure out the hydrogen peroxide by filling it fewer times than I would need to with 50 cm3 burette. We will write a custom essay sample on The Effect of Temperature and Concentration on the Rate of the Briggs-Rauscher Reaction or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page | 50 cm3 burette| I needed to repeatedly measure out small volumes of solutions AÃ¢â¬âI. The burette made the task convenient, and it is a precise instrument. 250 cm3 volumetric flask| I needed to make up a specific volume of a standard solution. The volumetric flask has a low error. | 100 cm3 volumetric flask| I needed to make up a specific volume of a standard solution. The volumetric flask has a low error. | Top pan balance| I needed to accurately weigh out small amounts of solid when making up my solutions. | 25 cm3 Mohr pipette| I used the pipette to accurately transfer sulfuric acid when making up solutions. I could not do this with a volumetric pipette, as the volume I transferred was 20 cm3. Distilled water| I used the distilled water to wash out any glassware and storage jars before using them to avoid contamination. | Crushed ice| I used the ice to cool my reactants down to 10 Ã °C. | Water bath| I used the water bath to heat my reactants up to 30 Ã °C, 40 Ã °C and 5 0 Ã °C. It kept the temperature constantÃ¢â¬âit does not cool down like hot water in a beaker. | Thermometer| I needed to measure the temperature of the reactants before pouring them into the beaker and stirring them. | Magnetic stirrer| I used the stirrer to ensure the reaction mixture was uniformly mixed. This was necessary to produce sharp colour changes. | Stopwatch| I used the stopwatch to record the times of the colour changes. These are the values I needed to investigate the effect of temperature and concentration on rate. | Measurement errors These are the errors associated with the equipment I used when weighing out solids, measuring volumes of liquid, recording the temperature of my reactants, and recording the times of the colour changes. Equipment| Error| 100 cm3 burette| Ã ±0. 2 cm3| 50 cm3 burette| Ã ±0. 1 cm3| 250 cm3 volumetric flask| Ã ±0. 3 cm3| 00 cm3 volumetric flask| Ã ±0. 2 cm3| 25 cm3 Mohr pipette| Ã ±0. 1 cm3| Top pan balance| Ã ±0. 005 g| Thermometer| Ã ±0. 5 Ã °C| Stopwatch| Ã ±0. 005 s (for instrument), Ã ±0. 5 s (for measurements), Ã ±0. 05 s (for measurements at 50 Ã °C)| The stopwatch could record to 2 d. p. but the times I recorded were affected by my reaction time. Recording to 2 d. p. would be pointless, as I could not record that precisely. I decided to record the times to the nearest second, except for my results at 50 Ã °C, where I recorded them to 1 d. p. because of the short duration of time between the colour changes. Percentage uncertainties Using the measurement errors, I can work out the percentage uncertainties for my measurements. I can do this using the formula: percentage uncertainty = error / value of measurement x 100% I made multiple measurements with many of the instruments I used. For these measurements, I will find the uncertainties for three of the values (the highest, the lowest and one close to the average) to give an indication of how the uncertainty changed across the range of measurements I made. Equipment| Error| Measurement| Percentage uncertainty / %| 100 cm3 burette| Ã ±0. cm3| 150 cm3| (I used the burette twice, so 0. 4 / 150 =) 0. 27| | | 90 cm3| 0. 22| 50 cm3 burette| Ã ±0. 1 cm3| 10. 00 cm3| 1. 0| | | 5. 00 cm3| 2. 0| | | 1. 00 cm3| 10| 250 cm3 volumetric flask| Ã ±0. 3 cm3| 250 cm3| 0. 12| 100 cm3 volumetric flask| Ã ±0. 2 cm3| 100 cm3| 0. 20| 25 cm3 Mohr pipette| Ã ±0. 1 cm3| 20 cm3| 0. 50| Top pan balance| Ã ±0. 005 g| 26. 75 g| 0. 02| | | 10. 7 g| 0. 05| | | 0. 85 g| 0. 59| Thermometer| Ã ±0. 5 Ã °C| 50 Ã °C| 1. 0| | | 30 Ã °C| 1. 7| | | 10 Ã °C| 5. 0| Stopwatch| Ã ±0. 5 s| 437 s| 0. 11| | | 95 s| 0. 53| | | 1 s| 50| | Ã ±0. 05 s (at 50 Ã °C)| 31. 8 s| 0. 57| | | 12. 9 s| 0. 388| | | 1. 5 s| 3. 3| The percentage uncertainties varied wildly depending on the error of the instrument and the value of the measurement. The largest uncertainty (50%) came from the stopwatch when I used it to record a time of 1 s. However, this would not have affected my calculations to a great extent, as I only used the time to calculate the blue cycle for the first oscillation. It would not have affected the value I calculated for the average oscillation period by a significant amount, and would not have noticeably affected the trends in my graphs. This applies to all uncertainties from the stopwatch. I could have recorded all my times to 1 d. p. to improve the accuracy of my calculations and draw graphs that showed a trend closer to the true one. The second most significant uncertainty (10%) was for the burette when I used it to add 1 cm3 of solution to different test tubes in order to test the effect of changing the concentration of propanedioic acid, manganese(II) sulfate(VI) and sulfuric acid. This is a very significant error that could have definitely weakened the accuracy of my results. It might explain, for instance, the wildly varying number of oscillations I observed for tests at 0. 01 M manganese(II) sulfate(VI), as well as the increased appearance of anomalous results at lower concentrations. Even the uncertainty for a measurement of 10 cm3 using the burette was 1%, which is significant. In order to reduce the instrumental error, I could have used a 1 cm3 pipette or syringe to measure very small volumes of solution. I could not have done much more to conveniently transfer larger volumes of solution (i. e. p to 10 cm3) while reducing the error, as even a 10 cm3 pipette has the same error as a 50 cm3 burette, and it would have been extremely time-consuming to transfer my solutions to test tubes using a 1 cm3 pipette. Still, a 1% uncertainty would not have dramatically affected my results. Another source of significant percentage uncertainties was the thermometerÃ¢â¬âat every temperature the uncertainty was above 1%. At 10 Ã °C, it was 5%, which is particularl y significant. This means that I could have started stirring the reactants at a temperature between 9. 5 Ã °C and 10. 5 Ã °C. However, there were no thermometers more precise than Ã ±0. 5 Ã °C, so there is not much I could have done to reduce this error. Anyway, looking back at my raw results, the times I recorded for tests at 10 Ã °C were not particularly discordant in comparison with the results I obtained for the other temperatures. All other errors were below 1%, so were insignificant. I used the volumetric flasks correctly, using a Pasteur pipette to add the distilled water for the last centimetre below the graduation mark, checking the mark at eye level in order to make sure I stopped at the correct point. I took readings from the bottom of the meniscus at eye level when using the Mohr pipette and burettes to reduce parallax error. I had to round up the mass of manganese(II) sulfate(VI)-1-water I weighed on the top pan balance from 0. 845 g to 0. 85, so an 4 d. p. analytical balance would have been better for this, but I did not have access to one. Procedural errors These are the errors that could have arisen from the method and improper technique. When making up solutions, it is important to rinse out the glassware and other equipment with distilled water before use. This was particularly vital for the BR reaction, due to its high sensitivity to chloride ions. As mentioned in my method, I did wash out all equipment with some distilled water before putting them in contact with any reactants to minimise the risk of contamination. It would have been impossible to prevent a small amount of solution from being lost when transferring them. When transferring from a beaker through a funnel to volumetric flask, the small amount left would have led to a lower final concentration then planned. I minimised this error by washing out the beaker with distilled water three times. When pouring solution from the test tubes into the reaction beaker, a small amount is also lost. However, the amount left would have little effect on the results because it is a systematic error, i. e. it is repeated every time the solution is poured. I always inverted the volumetric flasks when making up solutions in order to ensure homogeneity. Before pouring them into the burettes, I gave the storage bottles a swirl in case the uniformity of the solution had been affected during storage. This would prevent the trials from being tested at different concentrations, which would have compromised the accuracy of my results. In addition, I used a magnetic stirrer to make sure the consistency of the solution remained even within the reaction beaker. This also meant that the colour changes were sharper. It was especially important that the blue colour change was sharp, as this is the value I used to calculate the oscillation period, and therefore, rate of reaction. However, because human reaction time is not perfect, there was always some delay between the colour change and the pressing of the stopwatch. This is why I could not record times accurate to 2 d. p. At higher temperatures, i. e. 40 Ã °C and 50 Ã °C, the water from the solutions in the test tubes evaporated a lot faster than at room temperature while being heated in water bath, which would have increased the concentrations of the reactants and overstated the effect of the temperature increase. I minimised this error by removing the test tubes from the water bath as soon as possible after the temperature of the reactants reached the appropriate level. Next time, I would seal the test tubes using stoppers to prevent any water vapour from escaping. Unfortunately, the reactants could not remain at their starting temperature while being stirred, as they had to be poured into a beaker and set on a magnetic stirrer. This means that during tests at 30 Ã °C, 40 Ã °C and 50 Ã °C, the reactants cooled down; at 10 Ã °C, the reactants warmed up. This would have understated the effect of temperature on rate. There was a problem with the hydrogen peroxide in the burette. Because it was stored in the fridge, it was cold when I took it out. As it warmed up, there were noticeable increases in the level of solution in the burette. Trials that were run near the start of the session may have used colder, more concentrated hydrogen peroxide, which would have affected the rate of reaction. I only took the temperature of reactants when I tested the effect of temperature. In order to resolve this problem next time, I would take out the hydrogen peroxide at the very start of the lesson and wait for it to warm up while setting up the other burettes, magnetic stirrer etc. and also take the temperature of the reactants when testing concentration to see if it might have had a secondary effect on the rate. The potassium iodate(V) was not soluble enough to make Solution F (potassium iodate(V), 0. 5 M). Although I did manage to fully dissolve it with the aid of heat, a small amount crystallised out of solution after it cooled down, which would have decreased the solutionÃ¢â¬â¢s concentration and affected the results I obtained for the tests where I changed the concentration of potassium iodate(V) and sulfuric acid. Next time, I would change the experiment and run the tests at lower concentrations. Reliability My results were quite reliable, as I ran the reaction three times at each temperature and concentration. The number of oscillations was usually the same at each temperature/concentration and the times were concordant to an acceptable degree. There were a few anomalous runs, which I mentioned in my analysis section, and gave a possible explanation for above. I could have repeated the experiment a further time when I got inconsistent results, e. g. 0. 01 M manganese(II) sulfate(VI), to increase reliability. Extending the investigation The observations I made about the colours during particular runs were solely qualitative. I could broaden the scope of my investigation by using colourimetry to obtain a quantitative measurement of the colour intensity when the reaction was especially faint or dark. I could then compare it to values from the standard reaction to reinforce my observations. I could also use the data logger to measure the times of the colour changes. I could then compare the results from this technique to those from the stopwatch and evaluate the advantages and disadvantages to both methods, and decide which one would be better at producing accurate results. Conclusion Overall, I am satisfied that I have made valid conclusions about the effect of temperature and concentration on the rate of the BriggsÃ¢â¬âRauscher reaction. Although I did not fully meet my aim of finding the order of reaction for every reactant, I did discover that the reaction was not typical in this sense, and that the orders of reaction could not easily be found. I did manage to justify parts of the mechanism through the qualitative observations I made.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Comparison of The Death of Ivan Ilych and Metamorphosis. Ivan Ilych's death was like Gregor's Metamorphosis; in that, they were both powerful introductions to the stories. In both stories the character's Gregor and Ivan Ilych are introduced in a state in which it wouldn't be possible to know their character. Therefore the novellas both look back to the past in order to show us who the main characters really are. "Praskovya Fedorovna Golovina, with profound sorrow, informs relatives and friends of the demise of her beloved husband Ivan Ilych Golovin..."(p.15) Even though these similarities exist I think Kafka and Tolstoy's meanings and reasons for these two first scenarios were supposed to have different effects.In the "Metamorphosis" the very fist sentence is Gregor waking up a dung beetle. This is an unbelievable sentence and premise, even for a fictional book. The effect is to make it hard for the reader to accept the plot at first. Yet as the story goes on and the emotional metamorphoses take place within Gregor and his family, the orig inal metamorphosis is just accepted.English: The house of the Astapovo station master ...Now it is the other Metamorphoses that are more unbelievable. How Gregor finally realizes what being human is, and yet he is a bug. Grete's change from caring to irritable and ultimately destroying her brother emotionally.Also the mother's change from denial to acceptance and the father's gradual change from being angry to violent hatred.Now the mention of Ivan Ilych's death in the beginning is meant more for you to feel sorry for him. Tolstoy wants the reader to feel what any person would feel after a loved one died and then show them the shocking reactions or Ivan's loved ones. "Gentlemen," he said, "Ivan Ilych has died" (p.15). Then the lack of care and respect for him from his family and friends after his death further emphasizes...
Monday, March 2, 2020
A School Principal's Recommendation Letter for a Teacher SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips According to the State Department of Education, there were 24 applicants for every one teaching position in Connecticut last year! Teaching's a competitive field, so a stand-out letter of recommendation can go a long way. In the sample letter below, a principal recommends an art teacher applying to another school due to budget cuts. Check out what the principal has to say about this teacher, and then read on for an analysis of what this letter does well. Sample Letter #2: Written by a Principal for a Teacher Mr. Henry NicholsSchool PrincipalCityville Middle School1 School RoadCityville, NJ 08008 Dear Principal Nichols, ItÃ¢â¬â¢s my honor and pleasure to provide this letter of recommendation for Julia as she pursues an art teaching position with Cityville Middle School. As the principal of Townston Middle School, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve enjoyed having Julia on the teaching team for grades 6 through 8. WeÃ¢â¬â¢ll all miss her and her contributions to our school community. Unfortunately, budgetary restrictions have forced us to reduce the art teaching faculty, and as the most recent hire, Julia will no longer have a position with us next year. This decision in no way reflects on her skills, and I wholeheartedly endorse her candidacy as she seeks a position elsewhere. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s my wish that she finds a school with the resources to support her talent for teaching art. Julia started her teaching career with us fresh out of graduate school two years ago. She brought with her a solid training in pedagogical methods and art history, along with great energy and enthusiasm. She introduced several new projects that are now a part of the curriculum, including a self-portrait assignment that asks students to reflect on their identities, a stop-motion animation project using clay and iPads, and a papier-mache Ã¢â¬Å"sled challengeÃ¢â¬ that resulted in fun races down the hill beside the school. Julia also contributed to the Ã¢â¬Å"3D Printer Build-a-Thon,Ã¢â¬ a weekend-long event during which students, educators, and community members came together to assemble over 20 3D printers. Julia brings exciting new ideas to life; IÃ¢â¬â¢m confident that she will continue her momentum with her next school. Julia also impressed me with her commitment to lifelong learning. She successfully collaborated with her mentor, took advantage of several professional development opportunities offered in the district, and took classes on digital technology and special education over the last two summers. She also went out of her way to elicit feedback from her students, inviting them to share their experiences at the end of each semester. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s this commitment to growth and her studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ well-being that makes Julia an outstanding educator who empowers her pupils. Julia is charismatic and creative, and she thinks outside the box. She has shown excellent classroom management skills and developed a rapport with students, colleagues, and parents that is characterized by mutual respect. At the end of last year, I had a parent come to me specifically to praise Julia's teaching and the impact she's had on her son. Beyond her strengths as an art teacher, JuliaÃ¢â¬â¢s also a talented artist and has some of her oil and acrylic paintings displayed in a nearby gallery. Julia has my highest recommendation for the position of art instructor, and I look forward to learning more about the accomplishments that lie in her professional future. If the circumstances were different, I would strive to retain Julia on our art department teaching team. Please donÃ¢â¬â¢t hesitate to contact me for any further information. Thank you for your time. Sincerely, Elsa SkoolsSchool PrincipalTownston Middle Schooleskools@townston.k12.edu(866) 8-5546 Will this letter convince Principal Nichols to make room for Julia and her paintbrushes? Recommendation Letter #2: The Breakdown Like the first sample, this recommendation letter represents a common relationship between letter writer and candidate. It starts out with a strong statement of support with, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s my honor and pleasure to provide this letter.Ã¢â¬ This statement is then quickly followed by an explanation of who the letter writer is, thereby showing why sheÃ¢â¬â¢s qualified to recommend Julia. Principal Skools explains why JuliaÃ¢â¬â¢s applying elsewhere and makes sure to state that she would retain her on the teaching team if the budget allowed. She goes on to describe JuliaÃ¢â¬â¢s contributions with specific examples of projects she introduced and community events to which she contributed. The writer uses highly positive language to describe Julia, calling her creative, energetic, and committed to continuous improvement. She also touches on her personal talents as an artist. The letterÃ¢â¬â¢s structured to describe three main points: JuliaÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishments at the school, her commitment to learning and improvement, and her relationships with teachers, parents, and colleagues. In her glowing endorsement, Principal Skools gives specific examples of the achievements Julia'smade and will continue to make in her next art teaching position. What's Next? What experience do you need to become a teacher in the first place? Find out what degree you do (or don't) need to teach in this article. On to the next! Click here to read our third recommendation letter sample written by a restaurant manager for a part-time employee. Are you looking for a different type of sample letter? Head back to our original recommendation letter guide to find more samples and learn about the key features of outstanding reference letters. Want to provide a strong recommendation for your employee, but don't have the time to craft the perfect letter? PrepScholar's new recommendation tool, SimpleRec, takes you from good intentions and a blank page to a fully written and formatted letter of recommendation in under 5 minutes. All you need to do is give us some simple pieces of information about your employee and your experience working with them, and we'll do the rest. Try out SimpleRec risk-free today:
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Unit 2 - Essay Example (CFA, 2009) II. There is no single or correct value for a ratio. Normally, the ratio value may be too low or too high in comparison to reference value. Ratios can therefore mislead especially when they are not combined with economic need and management of the company. Therefore, one must consider the products, competitors and the vision of the company. III. It is generally hard to define the goodness- appropriateness of the ratio or its badness. Ordinarily, high cash ratio is historically classified and may be interpreted as a good sign especially when the company is growing, but could also interpreted as a sign that the company is no longer a growth company. V. The inflation also changes companys balance sheet hence affecting the profits accrued from the organization. Therefore, a ratio analysis of one company over time or a comparative analysis of companies of different ages must be scrutinized with understanding (CFA, 2009) I. Free cash flow is the amount of cash that a firm has in the bank at any given time, after all of its bills and payables are accounted for. It is determined on a daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly basis. Free cash flow is given by the total cash flow or the earnings with noncash charges added back in, minus capital spending. II. Free cash flow is important in the progress of any business because an excellent indicator of the strength of the marketplace. It normally focuses on the ability to pay bills and the remaining cash invested in growth and expansion projects. It is vital in assessing financial health of the company because it strips away all the accounting assumptions built into earnings III. Free cash flow is vital and it represents the operating cash flow after interest, the cash taxes, and normal capital expenditures. This is the cash flow that is available to a firm or a company used for dividends, debt repayment or the acquisitions of a new business. Investors use free cash flow in